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语法分析

时间:2009-6-2 9:31:44 点击:1766

一, 一般现在时的用法

1) 经常性或习惯性的动作,常与表示频腮度的时间状语连用。
  时间状语: every…, sometimes, at…, on Sunday

  I leave home for school at 7 every morning.
I go to school everyday
We go shopping on Sunday

2) 客观真理,客观存在,科学事实。
  The earth moves around the sun.
  Shanghai lies in the east of China.
The sun rise in the morning.


3) 表示格言或警句中。

  Pride goes before a fall. 骄者必败。

  注意:此用法如果出现在宾语从句中,即使主句是过去时,从句谓语也要用一般现在时。

例:Columbus proved that the earth is round.
哥伦布证实了地球是圆的。

4) 现在时刻的状态、能力、性格、个性。
  I don't want so much.
我不想要那么多

  Ann Wang writes good English but does not speak well.
王安英语写得很好,但是说的不是很好

Now I put the sugar in the cup.
现在我放点糖到杯子里

   I am doing my homework now.
现在我正在做家庭作业



二,一般过去时的用法

1)在确定的过去时间里所发生的动作或存在的状态。
  时间状语有:yesterday, last week, an hour ago, the other day, in 1982等。

  Where did you go just now?
你刚才去那里了?

I went to Shanghai yesterday.
我昨天去上海了

2)表示在过去一段时间内,经常性或习惯性的动作。

  When I was a child, I often played football in the street.
当我还是个孩子时,经常在大街上踢足球。

  Whenever the Browns went during their visit, they were given a warm welcome. 
无论什么时候不布朗去访问他们,他们都给予热情的欢迎。    
 
3) wish, wonder, think, hope 等用过去时,作试探性的询问、请求、建议等。

 I thought you might have some.
我以为你想要一些。

I wonder how you did that?
我很奇怪你怎么做的?


比较:
  一般过去时表示的动作或状态都已成为过去,现已不复存在。

 Christine was an invalid all her life. 
克里斯汀一生都是个病人
  (含义:她已不在人间。)

 Christine has been an invalid all her life. 
克里斯汀一生都是个病人
  (含义:她现在还活着)

 Mrs. Darby lived in Kentucky for seven years.
达比太太在肯塔基州住了七年
  (含义:达比太太已不再住在肯塔基州。)

 Mrs. Darby has lived in Kentucky for seven years.
达比太太在肯塔基州已经住了七年了。
 ( 含义:现在还住在肯塔基州,有可能指刚离去)
  
注意: 用过去时表示现在,表示委婉语气。
1)动词want, hope, wonder, think, intend 等。

   Did you want anything else?
你还想要点什么吗?

I intended to play football
我想要踢足球

   I wondered if you could help me.
我怀疑你是否可以帮助我

I thought it is going to rain
我人为就要下雨了

2)情态动词 could, would.
 
  Could you lend me your bike?
你可以借给我你的自行车码?

Would you please just leave me alone
你让我自己待会好吗?

Could you give me a glass of water please
请给我杯水好吗?

三,一般将来时

1) shall用于第一人称,常被will 所代替。
  will 在陈述句中用于各人称,在争求意见时常用于第二人称。
  
Which paragraph shall I read first.
我将首先读那一段

  Will you be at home at seven this evening?
今天傍晚七点钟你会在家吗

2) be going to +不定式,表示将来。

  a. 主语的意图,即将做某事。
   What are you going to do tomorrow?
明天你打算做什么?

I'm going to Beijing next month
我打算下个月去北京

  b. 计划,安排要发生的事。
   The play is going to be produced next month。
比赛将在下个月举行
they are going to swim tomorrow
他们打算明天去游泳

  c. 有迹象要发生的事

   Look at the dark clouds, there is going to be a storm.
瞧这乌云,大暴雨要来了

The winter is coming, the weather is going to cold
冬天要来了,天气会变冷了。


3)  be +不定式表将来,按计划或正式安排将发生的事。

   We are to discuss the report next Saturday.
我们将在下个礼拜六讨论这个报告。

They are to play the basketball on Friday
他们打算在礼拜五打篮球

4) be about to +不定式,意为马上做某事。

  He is about to leave for Beijing.
他马上要离开北京了

I'm about to work for this plan
我正打算开始做这项计划

  注意:be about to 不能与tomorrow, next week 等表示明确将来时的时间状语连用。


四,现在完成时

  现在完成时用来表示之前已发生或完成的动作或状 态,其结果的确和现在有联系。动作或状态发生在过去 但它的影响现在还存在;也可表示持续到现在的动作或 状态。其构成: have (has) +过去分词。

用于现在完成时的句型

1)It is the first / second time…. that…结构中的从句部分,用现在完成时。

  It is the first time that I have visited the city.
这是我第一次访问这个城市

  It was the third time that the boy had been late.
这孩子是第三次迟到了

2)This is the… that…结构,that 从句要用现在完成时.

  This is the best film that I've (ever) seen.
    这是我看过的最好的电影。

  This is the first time (that) I've heard him sing.
 这是我第一次听他唱歌。

this is the first time I have been here.
这是我第一次到这里来

Have you ever been to our town before?
  你以前到我们这个镇来过吗

No, it's the first time I have come here.
没有,我是第一次到这里来

This is the largest fish I have ever seen.
这是我看到过的最大的一条鱼


It is / was the first time +that-clause 的句型中,从句要用完成时。
  注意:非延续性动词的否定形式可以与表示延续时间的状语连用。即动作不发生的状态是可以持续的。


I haven't received his letter for almost a month.
我几乎有一个月没有收到他的信了

Since 用来说明动作起始时间,for用来说明动作延续时间长度。

  I have lived here for more than twenty years.
我住在这里已经二十多年了

  I have lived here since I was born..
从我出生我就住在这里

  My aunt has worked in a clinic since 1949. 
从1949年我的姨妈就在一个诊所工作

  Some new oilfields have been opened up since 1976.
从1976年又开发了一些新的油田

  I have known Xiao Li since she was a little girl. 
当小李还是个小姑娘时我就认识她

  My brother has been in the Youth League for two years.  我哥哥加入共青团已经两年了

  I have not heard from my uncle for a long time.
我已经有很长时间没有我舅舅的消息了。

五, 过去完成式
概念:表示过去的过去其构成是had +过去分词构成。

用法
 a. 在told, said, knew, heard, thought等动词后的宾语从句。
   She said (that) she had never been to Paris.
她说她从来没有去过巴黎

He told me he had been there for three days
他告诉我他到这里已经三天了

I knew that you had been won the lottery
我知道你的彩票中了奖


 b. 状语从句
   在过去不同时间发生的两个动作中,发生在先,用过去完成时;发生在后,用一般过去时。

   When the police arrived, the thieves had run away.
当警察到达时,小偷已经跑了

When the rain finally stopped, we whole body had been
wetted
当大雨终于停止时,我们的全身已经湿透了

 c. 表示意向的动词,如hope, wish, expect, think, intend, mean, suppose等,用过去完成时表示"原本…,未能…"

   We had hoped that you would come, but you didn't.
我们希望你能来,可是你没有来

We had expect that you would come ,but you didn't
我们期待着你能来,但是你没有来。

We had suppose that you would come, but you didn't
我们推测你能来,但是你没有来。


3) 过去完成时的时间状语before, by, until , when, after, once, as soon as。

  He said that he had learned some English before.
他说他以前学过一些英语

  By the time he was twelve, Edison had began to make a living by himself.
当他十二岁的时候,爱迪生就开始自己谋生了

 Tom was disappointed that most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party.
汤姆失望当他到达时,大多数晚会上客人已经走了

  The students were writing busily when Miss Brown went to get a book she had left in the office. 
当布朗小姐回去拿她忘在办公室的书时,学生们正在紧张的写着。

    He had no sooner bought the car than he sold it.
他刚买了这辆车就把他卖了

六,将来完成时

 1) 构成will / be going to do sth.
 2) 概念 
  a. 状态完成:表示某事继续到将来某一时为止一直有的状态。
  b. 动作完成:表示将来某一时或另一个将来的动作之前,已经完成的动作或一获得的经验。

   They will have been married for 20 years by then.
到目前为止他们已经结婚20年了

   You will have reached Shanghai by this time tomorrow.
明天这个时候他们已经到上海了


七, 现在进行时

 现在进行时的基本用法:
 a. 表示现在( 指说话人说话时) 正在发生的事情。

   We are waiting for you.
我们正在给你写信

We are doing our homework
我们正在做作业

 b. 习惯进行:表示长期的或重复性的动作,说话时动作未必正在进行。
   Mr. Green is writing another novel.
格林先生正在写另外一本小说 
   (说话时并未在写,只处于写作的状态。)

   She is learning piano under Mr. Smith.
他正在斯密斯先生的指导下学习钢琴。

 c. 表示渐变的动词有:get, grow, become, turn, run, go, begin等。

   The leaves are turning red.
树叶正在变红

   It's getting warmer and warmer.
天气越来越暖和

 d. 与always, constantly, forever 等词连用,表示反复发生的动作或持续存在的状态,往往带有说话人的主观色彩。

   You are always changing your mind.
你总是改变你的主意

  My dictionary is missing, I have looked for it everywhere but still haven't found it. 
 我的字典丢了,我找遍了所有的地方,但是我还是没有找到它

八,过去进行时

1) 概念:表示过去某时正在进行的状态或动作。

2) 过去进行时的主要用法是描述一件事发生的背景;一个长动作发生的时候,另一个短动作发生。

3) 常用的时间状语
this morning, the whole morning, all day yesterday, from nine to ten last evening, when, while

   My brother fell while he was riding his bicycle and hurt himself. 
我的兄弟在其自行车时摔到了,并且弄伤了自己

   It was raining when they left the station.
当他们离开车站时,天正在下雨

   When I got to the top of the mountain, the sun was shining. 
当我等到山顶上时,太阳正在放着光芒,


Mary was making a dress when she cut her finger. 
当玛丽亚正在做衣服时她割破了自己的手指


As she was reading the newspaper, Granny fell asleep.
当她正在读的时候,奶奶睡着了。


九,将来进行时

1) 概念:表示将来某时进行的状态或动作,或按预测将来会发生的事情。
   She'll be coming soon.
她很快就会来

   I'll be meeting him sometime in the future.
我将在将来某个时间和他见面

注意:将来进行时不用于表示"意志",不能说 I'll be having a talk with her.

2)常用的时间状语
Soon, tomorrow, this evening,on Sunday, by this time,tomorrow, in two days, tomorrow evening

   By this time tomorrow, I'll be lying on the beach.
明天的这个时候,我就会躺在海滩上了

作者:不详 来源:网络
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